1. County maps
Colored Map:

Printable maps:
Pre-1974 County Structure (matches most of IGI):
Select "Get Started with Family History" then Select "maps" then
"England and Wales Map, Pre-1974 County Structure"

For 1974 to 1996 County Structure (matches more recent maps):
"England and Wales Map, 1974 to 1996 County Structure"

19th Century Map:
Robert Wilkinson's The British Isles (1812) map at Vision of Britain
to view a County's area with some of its towns (to gain a relative perspective of its boundaries),
select map "19th century: OS First Series" in the lower right drop down menu,
then click on the vicinity of the map you wish to view.
2. - Has old Ordnance Survey Maps with old features, buildings, forests, farm names.... - (click on "Ordnance Survey Maps" in center textual map choices section)

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 01 - Maps and Locality Analyses (Read Labels At Top Of Browser)
3. Ordnance Survey Maps (1790-1840) are on 425 fiches at LARFHC - set #6066967
4. Topographical Dictionaries/Gazetteers - The LARFHC has several important Gazetteers for England:
  • A Topographical Dictionary of England (as of 1831), 4 Vols., by Samuel Lewis - Map Area 942 E51 1831 (2 sets)
  • A Genealogical Gazetteer of England, by Frank Smith - LARFHC map area 942 Efgs - abbreviated version of Lewis's work, but includes start dates of primary church registers
  • Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales - vols 1, 3, 4 in LARFHC map area 942 E5i v.1, 3, 4
  • above also on film: Vols 1-2 #897325; Vols 2-3 #897326; Vols 5-6 #897327, items 1-2
  • above also on fiches: #6020308 - 6020336
  • Pigot and Company's Counties of England maps - LARFHC map area 942 E7p6
  • GENUKI County Websites often have extracted information from old Gazetteers or provide Gazetteer-type Information - Some for the entire county, and some within the individual Parish listings. Note that these also may include information about the various villages and chapelries within the Parish Church's domain, as well as other pertinent information such as Civil Registration Districts for the area.
    Example for the County of Cheshire:
    Example for Sandbach Cheshire:
5. The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers, by Cecil R. Humphery-Smith - in locked cabinet at
LARFHC 942 E7pa - also at many other libraries with genealogical research materials, and at many FHC's.
(I agree with Linda Jonas that this is "probably the single most important reference work" for English Research)
  • Start date of parish registers for each parish
  • Relative positions of parishes within each county - which greatly facilitates "radial searches" and visualizing county boundaries.
  • Probate Jurisdictions for various parishes within each county
  • Separate Listing shows extant registers. where original registers are held, Society of Genealogy holdings, and Boyd's & IGI marriage indexes inclusion (all as of date of Phillimore's publication)
6. The Times London History Atlas, by the London Times, HarperCollins Publishers
This book is filled with old drawings, MAPS, and great information about the layout of London over the period from the Romans through Post-War London. If you are doing London research FOR ANY PERIOD, it is an invaluable aid to understanding the structure, nature, and layout in which your ancestors lived. A MUST SEE FOR LONDON RESEARCHERS to understand the complexity that has always been the London area. Fortunately, it is available for interlibrary loan through WorldCat, and a copy is in the collection of the L.A. Public Library.
7. Bartholomew's Half-Inch Maps of England, Scotland, and Wales are in an oversized book in the LARFHC
Map Area 912.42 B282-1 - Note that the cover of this book states "Photocopies cannot be made from this book."


1. Documents Online at the British National Archives

Click on "Advanced search" in the "Quick Search" box (center left)
Descriptions can be found at

  • Wills: Includes PCC Wills (Prerogative Court of Canterbury) 1384 to 1858. (1,016,144 Wills)
  • Death Duty Registers (71,740)
  • Ancient Petitions, King Henry III - James I
  • WW1 Campaign Medals (5,461,264)
  • WW2 Seamen's Medals (108,389)
  • Famous Wills (102)
  • Victorian Prisoners Photograph Albums (626)
  • Registers of Seamen's Services (582,319)
  • Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) (7,006)
  • French Muster Rolls (5,902)
  • WW1 Prisoners of War Interviews (3,429)
  • Royal Naval Division (50,108)
  • Victoria Cross Registers (1,237)
  • Recommendations for Honours and Awards (Army) (62,147)
  • Poor Law Union Correspondence (5,022)
  • Aliens Registration Cards (1,257)
  • Domesday Book (24,211)
  • Combat Reports, Second World War (33,693)
  • WW1 Women's Royal Naval Service (7,444)
Jamboree Slideshow (link): 03 - National Archives Documents Online (Read Labels At Top Of Browser)
2. A2a
Select "Search A2A" in the upper text menu.
Select the Archive you wish to search
Select "People, Places and Subjects" in the left text menu.

Example Searchable County Archive:
Staffordshire Archives has its own more detailed search capability:
Select "Detailed searches" - then Select "Archive Search"

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 04-Using A2A Access to British Archives (Read Labels At Top Of Browser)
3. English Research Outline/Guide from
The traditional Research Guide for doing English Research is still a great source for ideas and helping to organize your thoughts and research planning. It's available to print or save on your computer at: - Click on Research Helps, then select England, Research Outline - (Note: Very very slow to download)
4. The Genealogist's Guide by George W. Marshall - LARFHC 942 D24m (part)
This guide indexes, by surname, the Burke's volumes (Peerage,Commoners, Landed Gentry, etc.), other family and nobility guides, plus selected significant articles from the Harleian Society volumes, Archaelogical group publications, newspapers, Visitations, County Histories, etc. - an OUTSTANDING research source. Check for it at major libraries with genealogy collections.

5. Ordering research in Country Record Offices and other repositories in England.
Many record offices and archives have set up some level of standardization, including request forms to employ when requesting research or photocopies by their staff.

Some example forms:
London Metropolitan Archives (see above)
Photoduplication... Copying Services Price List (note extra fee for mailed services)

OR - information about their Research Services.

County Record Office Example: Staffordshire Record Office (See above)
Research Services and Forms

Finding Archives:
Archon at the National Archives website: (see drop-down menu under Search the Archives)
The ARCHON Directory includes contact details for record repositories in the United Kingdom and also for institutions elsewhere in the world which have substantial collections of manuscripts noted under the indexes to the National Register of Archives.

The National Registry of Archives page on the National Archives website allows you to search the register based on various combinations of criteria.

Their Manorial Documents Register, while incomplete, has valuable information about documents within Manorial Records (see as separate topic herein).

Use details you acquire from an A2a or County Record Office searches (online or via published works) to define requests for photoduplication services, or research to be done by record office (or private) on-site researchers as specifically as possible - Also, do let researchers know if you already have some items so that they will not duplicate items you already possess. However. do give researchers clues to collaterals as well as the families you are researching if you are interested in any pertinent information that the researcher may find helpful which you did not know existed. i.e. Don't ask for them to throw away your research money, but do indicate that as a "long distance" requestor, you would appreciate any substantive suggestions the researcher/copyist may have to offer (such as indexes of which you are unaware....), while allowing YOU the choice of whether or not to pay for them to pursue their suggestions regarding any non-specifically-requested searches or copying.

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 05 - Ordering Research in England (Read Labels At Top Of Browser)

6. Dictionary of National Biography (63 vols.) LARFHC fiches #6051261 (278 fiches)
This outstanding compilation of noteworthy people includes scientists, educators, inventors, and prominent politicians and citizens, as well as the expected noteworthy aristocracy. Check out those with your surnames of interest as well as your own ancestors - entries for siblings or cousins may give genealogical hints.
Note that a more recent version of this set is available in the UCLA Research Library as bound volumes.


1. Free BMD Search - Free index for birth/marriages/deaths in Civil Registration, starting 1 July 1837
(incomplete due to registration non-compliance for first few years - always check for +/- 5 years or so)
Civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths started in England and Wales on 1 July 1837.

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 02-Free BMD Search (Read Labels At Top Of Browser)
2. Free Census Search 1841-1891 (Index - then use films at LARFHC)
[I have not yet determined the completeness or accuracy of this database -pw]
See also at many public libraries

3. Burials Reconsidered
Free partial birth, marriage, death indexes (nominal fees for detail views):

Also, check the Family History Library Catalog and Phillimore's Atlas: Are the BTS (Bishop's Transcripts)

Important comments were sometimes entered in the Burial entry, such as:
  • occupation;
  • manor or farm name in which the deceased resided;
  • husband's name for deceased wives;
  • the term "relict" or "widow" for the burial of a widow may help you match up husbands and wives based on husband's prior death date;
  • town of residence for those buried in the "family plot;"
  • babies and young children who died before ever appearing in a census - sometimes giving clues to
    an earlier town of residence of the parents if the child was baptized in the prior township. Also, deaths of children
    for whom you do not find a baptism may indicate (for pre-civil registration periods) that either all of the children were
    not baptized, or that children were baptized in a parish record which has subsequently been "lost" or in a
    "non-conformist" church which did not keep baptism records'
  • don't forget that for some religions, baptisms occurred for adults, not children. Death records of several "unbaptised children" for
    the family surname may indicate they were of these late-baptism groups;
  • Family Plots did exist for some families - and bodies were brought from elsewhere for interrment - if places of residence have
    not been included in the register, and yet people of yur surname are being buried there with no corresponding
    Christening and Marriage entries, try to find the "set" of Christening & Marriage parish in the family's "new" place of
    residence. (Also note that non-conformists were often buried in the Church of England Churchyard, while their marriages and baptisms were conducted at their own church - sometimes marriages were recorded in both churches to comply with the various British laws or as "added security" that the marriage was legitimate.
4. FamilySearch IGI research - from IGI Batch numbers or Manual Input Film Numbers
Based on "found individuals" (don't forget gaps existed in many originals!) "Computer Printout" film Batch descriptions, or the following website listing IGI Batch Numbers for Great Britain:

IGI Batch number codes have significance! Extractions have errors, but may be more accurate than manual inputs.
Also, entries with words such as "about" may indicate a guess at a date or location!.
IGI Batch Codes:
Section in Process -pw
5. IGI Batch Numbers for England:
6. Use the U.S. Ellis Island Passenger List/Immigration website to determine some of the possible variations for the spelling of various surnames (works better for continental European and Scandinavian surnames).
Also, look for earlier and later arrivals for family members in the Ellis Island website and the Filby Passenger List Book Series (available at LARFHC) - try to put families together as you perform your research (your ancestor's parent/s may end up living with your ancestor's brother or sister in their old age, and unwed "maiden aunts" are invaluable for family identities).

7. Outbound Passenger Lists - 1890 to 1939 (so far) at Ancestors Onboard:
See BIFHS newsletters for other sites with this information.


1. FHL "Request for Photocopies - Census Records, Books, Microfilm or Microfiche" form:
Mail form to SLC FHL for photocopy service for your selected page numbers, selected index
pages, or specific "sections" of books which have not been filmed.
2. ("Library Version" online at Family History Libraries)
  • Search by full name
  • Search by Surname plus County or City to look for censuses, books, etc., with references to this Surname.
  • Search by Surname for less common surnames to search for Family Histories....
  • Order found books or journals via Interlibrary loans via WorldCat (see below), have pages photocopied, or look for local libraries
  • that hold books which have not been filmed by the FHL.
3a. WorldCat (online through many Public Libraries)
Order books for Interlibrary loans, have pages photocopied, or look for local libraries
that hold books or journals which have not been filmed by the FHL.

3b. Also use Worldcat to look for local/county histories or to look up family/surname histories (harder to
find and overwhelming for common names - do these via a combination locality and surname
advanced search.)


1, IGI (International Genealogical Index) and Pedigree Resource File
Pedigree Resource File

2. Boyd's Marriage Indexes - spotty parish coverage, and quality varies by parish, as these were compiled from the books of others - great for non-IGI church registers, however, especially near London.
(read more in BIFHS-USA outline by Linda Jonas: section H, item 2)
See Introduction on film #472,000.
Actual Indexes on LARFHC films #472,000 - 472,173.

3. London Marriage Licenses - some people came from outside of London, especially the wealthy,
or if they had business ties in London.

4. London and Middlesex Published Records by J. M. Sims (linked list for resource titles)
(This website address has changed - I will post a URL here if I can find the above or a similar source for information -pw)

5. Marriage Licenses from local Bishops - frequently housed at County Record Office or local diocese
record office. Many have been published and/or filmed.

6. London Marriage Licences at the Principal Registry - 1521-1901 (index)
LARFHC 942.1 F814

7. Index of Middlesex Marriages - [Unknown Source, completeness not known -pw]
(Sorry - this one has disappeared too - pw)



2. Land Assessment Tax Lists for 1798 - are at LARFHC, films 1,483,001 - 1,483,064 (64 rolls)
Others are available through the FHL Catalog. Also look online via A2A and County Archives, as well as privately transcribed tax lists available online or in publications/books. [section in process - pw]

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 11 - Land Records for All: Tax Lists (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

3. Parish Chest Items (varies by Parish). See also special holdings in related Bishop's collections.
(may be indexed at County Record Office - also, see Phillimore's Atlas below for locality)

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 13 - Parish Chest Items & Poor Law Records (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

4.. MY FAVORITE GENEALOGY WEBSITE! - However, while you can see the index of family names covered for free, there is a fee to see the actual lineages:
An INCREDIBLE collection of lineages - based on Burkes Peerage, Burke's Commoners, Burke's Landed Gentry, well-documented books, and whatever other reliable sources the scholarly website auther has collected. Lineages are set up as descendancy charts in separate pages for each logical/locality family, with some families extending into more than one webpage. This website is created in an EXCELLENT research format, with information sources by page (sources listed at the bottom of the page), a description of the family's locality/localities involved at the top of each family page, and with highlighted research and/or accuracy comments, as well as inter-linking with other family descendency pages within the website.

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 09 - Genealogies at, Medieval,
and - (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

5. Tudor Place, a free site similar to Stirnet but in regular family group format with genealogies and some ancestors and descendents for 1500's-1600's prominent families, and localized entry sourcing (some based on older sources needing verification):
Elizabethan Peerage:
Selected Titled or Notable Tudor Period Families:
Who's Who Biographies:

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 09 - Genealogies at, Medieval,
<>and - (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

6. Victoria County Histories - some are available online and full-name or surname searchable through or British History Online - also, many major university libraries (UCLA, Long Beach, Fullerton...) have these in their collections. Also, try WorldCat for book loans.
These County Histories include the history of many of the towns and villages in the county, including manor house ownerships, prominent settlers, etc. Also, major occupations or industries are provided for many towns, as well as geographic highlights. The historical information included may provide direct information about your family, or can help in ascertaining manor names and landowners for further record research (were your ancestors their tenants?). Plus, they have OUTSTANDING bibliographies and footnotes to use as guides for further research of your own.

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 10 - Victoria County Histories (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

7. British History Online (also searchable through

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 08 - British History Online (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

8. Land Records for rich, poor, farmers and merchants
Land registries for landowners are available on film from the FHL for Middlesex and the North, West, and East Yorkshire Ridings. (The indexes films are at LARFHC)
See FHL Catalog listing under England/County - land and property....
Middlesex: films 230,638-230,648 and 415362 - see FHL Catalog for index and deed film numbers
West Riding, North Riding, West Riding of Yorkshire - see FHL catalog for index film numbers and deed film numbers, etc. Note: for tenants, try available tax lists and city directories.
See also Linda Jonas Outline, section J.

England and Wales Return of Landowners, 1873, Vol. II. - LARFHC map area Oversized Q942 R2L (v.2 only)
English Counties covered in this volume: alpha Northampton through York, West Riding (see table of contents page)

[Section in Process - more descriptive information, content, and film numbers upcoming -pw]

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 12 - Land Records: Registries and Deeds (Read Labels At Top Of Browser & Scroll Down for Notes)

9. Analyze Existing Pedigrees - use for data or clues, based on the quality of the work:
Guides to accuracy include: number and type of sources shown; footnotes to identify "guesses" versus "documented" lineages; number of collateral families shown and the sources of data for them; identification and distinguishing analysis between parties with the same name in the same locality; evaluate the quality of the author's other works and sources used.
Even if the quality is poor - use their BIBLIOGRAPHY and family locations, occupations, footnotes, and migrations shown as clues for your research

Note: If you are researching an not-too-common surname for a particular locality, take special note in ANY genealogies for the surnames of your family name (even if it is not a genealogy of your own line) - pay special attention to any STRAY MEN whose marriage and/or descendents are ignored in the publication - especially for those men who may have lived in the area of your ancestor.

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 07 - Analyzing Pedigrees (Read Labels At Top Of Browser)

Jamboree Slideshow (link): 07 Supplement - Pondering a Pedigree - Analyzing Existing Pedigrees

10. Problems with Burke's Peerage and other published Genealogies (British and European)
11. Burke's Landed Gentry and A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain
volume 1 (A-J) 1862 version
Example: (searched for) Richard Vaughan,M1

volume 2 (K-?), 1863 version
Example: (searched for) Richard Vaughan

Commoners Example (searched for) for Richard Vaughan, Bishop of London,M1
12. HeritageQuest: English items and books (online through many Public Libraries)
example: Burke's "Royal Families" ....
13. Heralds' Visitations Online (some require fees) add definition of Visitations
Online Guide:
14. Smith's Inventory of Genealogical Sources for England LARFHC fiches set #6110526
(this item is also listed in BIFHS-USA website outline by Linda Jonas: section B, item 1)

15. Look for Bibliographies, references, and sources found in published genealogies, town/county histories,
historical event, and parish church histories.

Let the works of others help you find sources for your own research. Maybe references in a family history for your researched surname refer to a different line, but the references and footnotes of their work may give you clues to finding your own ancestors' records. Also, town or other local histories may refer to documents and collections to research for your family research. Don't overlook town historians (those who have published works or are known as local historians to the local library staffs) for any files or collections held locally.
16. PERSI - online at HeritageQuest (available through many public libraries and at Family History Centers)

17. Use City/County Directories and Gazetteers and County Histories to connect families by occupations as well as localities. A study of sequential Directories may also effectively provide a wife (widow) or son's name if they are running a farm or business after the husband/father's death, or can show the names of possible siblings and cousins.

18. Passenger Listings for incoming vessels to the various major U.S. ports and incoming from Canada.
See various online collections, collections, and published books and "M series" films at the LARFHC and the National Archives, Laguna Nigel.
(See also Ellis Island Passenger Lists online, for selected years.)

19. Canals and Waterways records - See Don Hirst's excellent article on this subject in the Syllabus for the 19__ BIFHS-USA Seminar. [ENTRY IN PROCESS -pw]

20. Occupational, Business, Guild, and Philanthropic Group (hospital boards...) Occupational Guilds and groups, businesses, hospital/church/school boards, and other groups may have left records with clues to relationships. Minutes, merchant accounts, board member lists, apprenticeship lists or guild histories all may have clues for putting families together: sons often followed their father, uncle, "in-law," or other relative into a family occupation or Guild membership (also applies to City Directory listings); merchant accounts may imply various family groups based on the heads of the families shown.

21. IGI batch input request for "family group sheets" input form copies - forms available online at or at most Family History Centers.
For older hand input family group sheets, you might want to order a copy of the input sheets - just in case there was a source shown in the original batch input sheet.

22. Voter Records - note that 2/3 of the male population could vote starting in 1884. Before 1832, only landowners could vote, about 5% of the male population.

23. AIM25 -
An In Process attempt to identify research sources contained in "Archives in London and the M25 area.

24. Society of Genealogists, The National Library and Education Centre for Famiy History, London -
The Society has a stiff membership fee (over $100/year), but contains many documents, ORIGINAL PARISH REGISTERS, books, and other research sources. They have started adding online-searchable databases for members - example: St. Andrew Holborn Marriage Index 1754-1812 containing over 70,000 names for this church which is NOT included in either the IGI nor Boyd's Marriage indexes.
For a FEE, they will do research in their collections - but BE SPECIFIC (based on their free online catalog) as to what documents you want researched, so they do not just look in books.... which you could research yourself at home.



1. England Probate Guides chart from
Before delving into this somewhat complex topic, let me suggest that you first look at a copy of Philimore's Atlas and Index of Parish Registers for the Ecclesiastical/Probate Jurisdictions Map for your county of research [see more on this book elsewhere herein -pw].

This is a guide to the fiche/film numbers for the "Hand List of Probate Jurisdiction" probate research guides prepared by the SLC FHL. All of the film numbers shown by the guides for the various counties are available at the LARFHC.

Each guide covers an English county, giving its probate jurisdictions plus the film numbers (or SLC book numbers) for various types of probate records and probate indexes for that county. Included are the reference numbers for such items as will indexes and calendars, original wills, bonds, caveat books, act books, administrations, warrants, assignation book, appeals cases, assignation books, muniment books, depositions and answers, sentences, etc. for that county.

Each guide generally starts with an informative introductory essay for that county, followed by of a list of "Printed Probate Records," including indexes, etc., available in book form at the SLC FHL at the time of the Guide's creation (be sure to look for additions under the probate section for your county in the FHL Catalog). (See also Request for Photocopies form elsewhere in this outline.)

The general layout for the listings in the much larger "Filmed Probate Records" section is first a "Contents Summary," followed by many pages of film references, organized under the headings of the various courts which handled probates for that county. These include Archdeaconry, Deaconry, Consistory, Peculiar, and Manorial court records which have been filmed by SLC as of the time the guides were made (1960's?) - click on Research Helps, then select England, Probate Guides from the list.
2. Death Duty Registers (71,740 online) Various registers run from 1795-1903.
A good explanation of the Death Duty (Tax) Registers is available at the National Archives website at "

Indexes for SOME of the Registers (for County Court Registers 1796-1811) are now online at The British Archives - "Documents Online"
3. Bank of England Will Extracts 1726-1845 - [SECTION IN PROCESS -pw]

Index by SOG (Society of Genealogists) for 1807-1845 ONLY on LARFHC fiche/film

(read more in BIFHS-USA online English Research outline by Linda Jonas: section Letter I, item 3)
4. Manorial Documents Register at the National Archives - "Identifies the nature and location of manorial records." The index is partly online for some counties - for the majority of counties, a request must be submitted.
For more information and the partial online index, see:

5. Naturalization Records - in England and in the U.S. - [THIS SECTION STILL IN PROCESS -pw]


1. Webshots: Town, church, statues, and miscellaneous pictures as taken by "tourists" or anyone
wishing to contribute (many appear to be by college students),M1
2. Panoramio: Town, church, statues, and miscellaneous pictures as taken by "tourists" or anyone
wishing to contribute (many appear to be by college students)
3. Church Images and Comments at Church Crawler: An ancient church enthusiast's personal website which incudes images and descriptive information about various churches he has visited in his church touring trips.
4. Geograph: Town centers, churches, bridges, gardens, statues, and miscellaneous pictures as taken by "tourists" or apparently anyone wishing to contribute (many appear to be by local residents). Photos can be SEARCHED based on their geographic national Grid location - OR, start with a village, then look for pictures in the same grid for a view of the surrounding countryside.... Interesting concept and fun to use for rural localities.

SECTION H - Some of My Favorite "How To" Books for IDEAS and social and research commentary

1. A Genealogist's Guide to Discovering Your English Ancestors, by LInda Jonas, past-president of BIFHS-USA - along with the "original" FamilySearch guide for English Research, I feel this is the best beginner-intermediate guide for British Research.

2. Genealogical Resources in English Repositories - LARFHC 942 J54m and supplement 942 J54m supp.
Browse this book for your county to get ideas for special collections, local libraries, and other research sources.

3. Tracing Your English Ancestors, a manual for analysing and solving genealogical problems, 1538 to the present (a 1989 update of The Family Tree Detective, 1985 - LARFHC 942 D27r 1985)
This is an EXCELLENT "reading" book, more than a reference book. The author does an excellent job of pointing out subtle and not-so-subtle social, historical, and legal "tidbits" to help you with your English research.

4. Your English Ancestry, a Guide for North Americans - LARFHC 973 D2is
Another "reading" book, it contains good background material for research, as well as research suggestions. Example, p. 66 contains a good brief comparison of the difference between a "poll book" and an "electoral register" and the change in voter eligibility of 1884.